Chinese and US negotiators are set to resume trade talks amid the threat of fresh tariffs and warnings over the impact on the global economy.
President Trump says he will raise tariffs on $200bn (£152bn) of Chinese goods on Friday with his officials accusing China of reneging on promises.
China has said it will respond with “necessary countermeasures”.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) said the row poses a “threat to the global economy”.
“As we have said before, everybody loses in a protracted trade conflict,” the body which aims to ensure global financial stability said in a statement, calling for a “speedy resolution”.
The two sides had appeared to be making progress until recently but uncertainty now surrounds whether the talks will succeed.
China has been a frequent target of Donald Trump’s anger, with the US president criticising trade imbalances between the two countries and Chinese intellectual property rules he says hobble US companies.
Ahead of the discussions due on Thursday, he told a rally China had “broke the deal”. He has also threatened to raise tariffs on $200bn worth of Chinese goods this week and introduce new ones.
What sparked his actions, which apparently took China by surprise, is unclear.
US sources told Reuters news agency that last week China returned a draft agreement with changes that undermined its commitments to address key US demands.
Tariffs are taxes paid by importers on foreign goods, so the tariff imposed by the US on Chinese goods would be paid by American companies.
China denies backtracking and has said it “keeps its promises”.
If the US tariffs go ahead, the Chinese have said they will retaliate in kind.
“The escalation of trade friction is not in the interests of the people of the two countries and the people of the world,” the Chinese Commerce Ministry said in a statement.
“The Chinese side deeply regrets that if the US tariff measures are implemented, China will have to take necessary countermeasures.”
Each side has hinted that the other has more to lose. At the rally Mr Trump said if no deal was struck there was “nothing wrong with taking in more than $100bn a year” while China’s state-run Global Times said China was “much better prepared” than the US.
The proposed US measures are due to come into force at 00:01 EDT (05:00 GMT) early on Friday, and will see rates on a vast array of Chinese-made electrics, machinery, car parts and furniture jump from 10% to 25%.
The two sides have already imposed tariffs on billions of dollars worth of one another’s goods, creating uncertainty for businesses and weighing on the global economy.